Minangkabau culture is the culture of the minangkabau ethnic group in indonesia, part of the indonesian culture. This culture is one of the two major cultures in the indonesian archipelago which is very prominent and influential.
Minangkabau culture adheres to a matrilineal system in terms of marriage, ethnicity, inheritance, and customary titles. The minang people survive as the world’s largest matrilineal adherents. The principles of minangkabau custom are contained in the statement of “adat basandi syarak, syarak basandi kitabullah” (adat is based on sharia, sharia is based on koran) which means custom based on islamic teachings.
Historically, minangkabau culture originated from luhak nan tigo (minangkabau highlands), which then spread to overseas areas in the west, east, north and south of luhak nan tigo. Currently the minangkabau cultural area covers west sumatra, western part of riau (kampar, kuantan singingi, rokan hulu), west coast of north sumatra (natal, sorkam, sibolga, barus), western part of jambi (kerinci, bungo), northern part of bengkulu (mukomuko), southwest part of aceh (aceh barat daya, aceh selatan, aceh barat, nagan raya, aceh tenggara district).
Minangkabau culture was originally characterized by animist and buddhist cultures. Then since the arrival of islamic reformers from the middle east at the end of the 15th century. Minangkabau customs and culture that were not in accordance with islamic law were abolished. The scholars, spearheaded by haji piobang, haji miskin, and haji sumanik, urged the indigenous people to change the view of minang culture that previously had a lot of orientation towards animism and buddhist culture, to be oriented to islamic law. The culture of fighting for chickens, fighting buffaloes, gambling, drinking tuak, is forbidden in traditional parties of the minang community.
Cultural reforms in minangkabau took place after the padri war which ended in 1837. This was marked by the agreement on marapalam hill between religious scholars, traditional leaders, and cadiak pandai (ingenious clever). They agreed to base minang cultural customs on islamic law. The agreement was stated in an adage which reads: adat basandi syarak, syarak basandi kitabullah. Syarak mangato adat mamakai (adat according to the sharia). Since cultural reform in the mid-19th century, the pattern of education and human development in minangkabau is based on islamic values. So since then, every village or jorong in minangkabau has a mosque. Minangkabau youth who have grown up are obliged to sleep in the surau. In surau, besides learning the koran, they also forged physical training in the form of silat.
The minangkabau people have a philosophy that “pemimpin itu hanyalah ditinggikan seranting dan didahulukan selangkah.” this means that a leader must be close to the community he leads, and a leader must be ready to be criticized if he makes a mistake. In a concept like this, minangkabau does not recognize the type of leader who is dictatorial and totalitarian. In addition, the concept of minangkabau culture, which consists of mini republics, in which the nagari as an autonomous region, has the heads of independent people. They have the same rights and obligations, and are considered equal in society.
With this philosophy, minangkabau gave birth to many leaders who were trustworthy in various fields, be it politics, economy, culture, and religion. Throughout the twentieth century, the minangkabau ethnic group was one of the groups of people in malay archipelago who produced the most leaders and pioneering figures. They include: tan malaka, mohammad hatta, yusof ishak, tuanku abdul rahman, sutan sjahrir, agus salim, assaat, hamka, mohammad natsir, muhammad yamin, abdul halim and others. Based on a relatively small population, minangkabau is one of the most successful.according to tempo magazine (2000 new year special edition), six of the top ten most influential indonesians of the 20th century were minang